Solar Cell Working principle: Solar Cell is a collection of photovoltaic cells that can generate electricity by photo-electric effect. Solar Cell: it creates electricity from sunlight. Sunlight contains millions of packets of energy known as photons that are able to be directly converted into electric energy. This is known as “photographed energy”. Photo-voltaic effect is used to convert solar energy to electric energy for further use.
The devices that are used in order to create electricity; these photovoltaic cells are found on the back, front or sides of an absorber plate. The plates are placed on or near a window which is exposed to the sun. When the light passes through the device, the photons become electrical signals and are transformed into electricity. The electricity generated is known as Direct Current (DC). A common method of using the photovoltaic effect is the single solar cell working; this is the most effective method to convert sunlight directly into electricity with no external assistance.
Single Solar Cell Working
The single solar cell is an extremely simple device. The device consists of a light source and a dark absorber plate where photons can be absorbed and transformed into DC current. For each photo photon, one side of the plate becomes dark and this n-type silicon is filled with an extra layer of n-type silicon. Silicon acts as an electrode which allows current to pass through it. The dark side is called the anode and absorbs more photons than the light side. After the current reaches an electric current, this current is used to charge an electrical wire.
The single solar cell works perfectly well at producing low voltage current. The problem lies in the fact that the voltage is lower than needed to power a household appliance. To remedy this issue, the current needs to be increased, which leads to the problem of how to increase the voltage. Luckily, by understanding how the photovoltaic effect works, we can easily increase the voltage.
The event of darkness usually occurs after sunset. This is when light photons have not reached their peak efficiency. If the incident light reaches its peak later on after dusk, the voltage will also be adjusted according to the time difference. During daytime, there is enough time for the light photons to reach their peak efficiency and so the event of darkness does not alter the amount of voltage. With that said, it is important to note that the current will decrease when there is more sun.
How do Photovoltaic Cells work? The main principle behind the work of the solar cell is that electrons move from an area of lower voltages to higher ones when exposed to sunlight. When the photons hit the surface of the semiconductor, electrons are bumped off. This bump can change the electron charge in the form of either an “H” or an “I”. The higher the number of I’s, the higher the voltage produced by the cell. However, the higher the voltage produced, the higher the cost becomes.
The P-type current is a unique subtype of the solar cells’ event of darkness. The reason behind this subtype is that only certain types of light can create electricity while all other forms do not generate electricity. When the P-type current encounters air, it creates ions and so creates a current similar to n-type currents.
The current generated is a bit stronger than n-type current but is still much lower than the electricity created through the P-type current. Since this is the only subtype of solar cells that can generate electricity, it is essential that this type of cell is manufactured using the best material.
Understanding the working principle of solar cells is very essential when building and installing your own solar cells. Without knowing how to work with them, you will have no chance of harnessing the unlimited power of the sun. However, if you are able to master how to harness this untapped source of energy, you will be able to save up on your electricity bill and contribute something positive to the environment. After installing your solar cells, you will notice a significant difference in your monthly electricity bills and as a result, your bank account will feel some relief as well.