Solar cell – Definition, Working Principle, And Development


Introduction

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A solar cell is a device that converts sunlight into electrical energy. The sunlight is converted into direct current (DC) electricity, which can be used to power devices or stored in batteries for later use. Solar cells are made of material that can generate electricity when exposed to light, such as silicon. They are often used to power things like calculators, watches, and small electrical devices.

Solar cells have been around for a long time, the first one was created in 1839 by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel. However, they have only become popular in recent years as the cost of producing them has decreased and the amount of sunlight available has increased.

Development of Solar Cells

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While direct current electricity was first produced by photovoltaic cells in 1883, it has only been since the 1950s that scientists have begun to fully understand how solar cells work. The first modern silicon solar cell was created at Bell Laboratories in 1954. Solar cells were used to power satellites and other space technology for many years before being introduced into consumer products. As the price of producing them has plummeted in recent decades, they have become much more common on Earth as well as in space.

Working of a Solar Cell

The working principle of a solar cell is simple but effective. When light shines on a solar cell, some of the photons are absorbed by the cells. This energy is then converted into electrical energy, which is passed through an external circuit to power devices or stored in batteries. The more sunlight that shines on a solar cell, the more electricity it will generate. Solar cells only work when they are exposed to direct sunlight, so they are often used in conjunction with batteries or other storage devices to provide power at night or in cloudy weather.

Solar cells work by converting sunlight into electrical energy. The sunlight is converted into direct current (DC) electricity, which can be used to power devices or stored in batteries for later use. Solar cells are made of material that can generate electricity when exposed to light, such as silicon.

When light shines on a solar cell, some of the photons are absorbed by the cells. This energy is then converted into electrical energy, which is passed through an external circuit to power devices or stored in batteries. Solar cells only work when they are exposed to direct sunlight, so they are often used in conjunction with batteries or other storage devices to provide power at night or in cloudy weather.

A photovoltaic cell is made of material that can generate electricity when exposed to light, such as silicon. When light shines on the cell, some of its photons are absorbed by the atoms that make up the semiconductor material. The photon’s energy then excites an electron inside one of these atoms and causes it to leave its original position and become trapped between layers of quartz crystal in the PV cell (the “band gap”). This generates a current; more sunlight means more voltage and current.

Solar Cells Classification

There are two types of solar cells:

The first type is the single-crystal silicon cell. In these cells, a thin slice of crystalline silicon is used as a substrate to support the active photovoltaic material. The second type is polycrystalline solar cells which are made from large silicon crystals that are grown from molten silicon and cut into wafers. They have a larger current output than monocrystalline cells but not as high an efficiency rating per dollar invested.

Advantages

Solar cells have many advantages over other forms of energy generation. They are renewable, meaning they can be used over and over again, and they produce no emissions, making them environmentally friendly. Solar energy is also widely available, as sunlight can be harnessed anywhere in the world, regardless of location or time of day.

Disadvantages

One disadvantage is that they can only produce electricity when it’s sunny outside, making them less efficient during times of limited sunlight or cloudiness. However, advancements in battery technology have helped to offset this problem by allowing people with solar cells to store excess energy for later use. Using batteries to store large amounts of energy has traditionally been quite expensive, but recent developments have significantly decreased the cost of storing solar energy.

Conclusion

Solar cells are a renewable, environmentally friendly source of energy that can be harnessed anywhere in the world. They have many advantages over other forms of generation and because they only produce electricity when it’s sunny outside, their efficiency during times of limited sunlight or cloudiness has been offset by advancements in battery technology.

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